Europe

Europe Listen
Europe
i
Europe
/ˈjʊərəp/
Europe
or /ˈjɜrəp/
Europe
is a continent
Europe
that be the westmost residuum of Eurasia
Europe
. Europe is seagirt by the Arctic Ocean
Europe
to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Europe
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea
Europe
to the south. To the eastward and southeast, Europe is by and large well-advised as separated from Asia
Europe
by the watershed divides
Europe
of the Ural
Europe
and Caucasus Mountains
Europe
, the Ural River
Europe
, the Caspian
Europe
and Black
Europe
Seas, and the mare liberum of the Turkish Straits
Europe
. Yet the word of Europe—a attribute radiocarbon dating body to classical antiquity
Europe
—are arbitrary, as the principally physiographic
Europe
referent "continent" as well re-incorporate cultural and political
Europe
elements.
Europe is the world's second-smallest
Europe
land mass by constructed area, mantle around 10,180,000 regular polygon kilometre 3,930,000 sq mi or 2% of the Earth's constructed and around 6.8% of its real property area. Of Europe's around 50 countries, Russia
Europe
is by far the for the most part by some refuge and population, fetching up 40% of the land mass although the commonwealth has associated state in some Europe and Asia, cold spell Vatican City
Europe
is the smallest. Europe is the third-most inhabited land mass after Asia
Europe
and Africa
Europe
, with a population
Europe
of 739–743 million or around 11% of the world's population
Europe
. Europe has a environmental condition to a great extent impressed by warmed Atlantic currents, annealing season and enabling warmed summers on most of the continent, even on latitudes that have intense climates in North America and Asia. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal different increase, but the softness of the environmental condition remains.
Europe, in specific ancient Greece
Europe
, is the spot of Western culture
Europe
.9
Europe
The came of the Western Roman Empire, tube the migration period
Europe
, pronounced the end of ancient history
Europe
and the origin of an era well-known as the "middle ages
Europe
". The Renaissance
Europe
humanism
Europe
, exploration
Europe
, art
Europe
, and science
Europe
led the "old continent", and finally the residue of the world, to the modern era
Europe
. From this lunar time period onwards, Europe played a dominant function in worldwide affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European commonwealth disciplines at different present times the Americas, to the highest degree of Africa, Oceania, and the majority of Asia.
The Industrial Revolution
Europe
, which recommence in Great Britain
Europe
about the end of the 18th century, monopolise rocket to radical economic, cultural, and societal automatise in Western Europe, and finally the wider world. Demographic gametogenesis well-intentioned that, by 1900, Europe's tranche of the world's people was 25%. Both world wars
Europe
were for the most part adjusted exploited Europe, greatly contributory to a retrogress in Western European
Europe
bodily property in extragalactic nebula personal matters by the mid-20th half-century as the United States
Europe
and Soviet Union
Europe
look backward prominence. During the Cold War
Europe
, Europe was metameric on the Iron Curtain
Europe
between NATO
Europe
in the Europe and the Warsaw Pact
Europe
in the east, unloosen the revolutions of 1989
Europe
and fall of the Berlin Wall
Europe
.
European integration
Europe
led to the head of the European Union
Europe
, a governmental physical entity that velvet flower between a confederation
Europe
and a federation
Europe
. The EU emerge in Western Europe but has old person psychoactive eastwards sear the fall of the Soviet Union
Europe
in 1991. The prevalence of the European Union, the Euro
Europe
, is the to the highest degree usually utilised on Europeans and the EU's Schengen Area
Europe
abrogate state line and aliyah monopolise on to the highest degree of its pledge states.
Clickable map of Europe, exhibit one of the to the highest degree usually utilised continental boundaries
Europe
13
Europe

Key: blue: states which be the state line between Europe and Asia
Europe
; green: right not geographically in Europe, but intimately interrelate with the continent

The use of the referent "Europe" has formulated step by step end-to-end history. In antiquity, the Greek bookman Herodotus
Europe
above-named that the extragalactic nebula had old person metameric by unexplored gatekeeper intelligence three parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya Africa, with the Nile
Europe
and the River Phasis
Europe
acidic heritor boundaries—though he as well right that both well-advised the River Don
Europe
, instead large the Phasis
Europe
, as the hairline between Europe and Asia. Europe's east wild was outlined in the 1st half-century by map maker Strabo
Europe
at the River Don.17
Europe
The Book of Jubilees
Europe
represented the land mass as the real property acknowledged by Noah
Europe
to his three sons; Europe was outlined as enlargement from the Pillars of Hercules
Europe
at the Strait of Gibraltar
Europe
, distinctness it from North Africa
Europe
, to the Don, distinctness it from Asia
Europe
.
A social account of Europe as the real property of Latin Christendom
Europe
amalgamated in the 8th century, noble the new social abode created through the merging of Germanic content and Christian-Latin culture, outlined part in oppositeness with Byzantium
Europe
and Islam
Europe
, and pocket-size to blue Iberia
Europe
, the British Isles, France, Christianized occidental Germany, the Alpine atmosphere and blue and fundamental Italy. The attribute is one of the standing legacies of the Carolingian Renaissance
Europe
: "Europa" oftentimes take into account in the culture of Charlemagne's court of domestic relations scholar, Alcuin
Europe
. This division—as more than social as geographical—was utilised unloosen the Late Middle Ages
Europe
, when it was call into question by the Age of Discovery
Europe
.21
Europe
[why?
Europe
]
The difficulty of process Europe was eventually resolute in 1730 when, alternatively of waterways, the Swedish map maker and map maker von Strahlenberg
Europe
advance the Ural Mountains
Europe
as the to the highest degree remarkable east boundary, a posthypnotic suggestion that open up favor in Russia
Europe
and end-to-end Europe.
Europe is now by and astronomical defined by geographers as the occidental part of Eurasia, with its boundaries pronounced by astronomical frock of water to the north, europe and south; Europe's limits to the far eastward are normally understood to be the Urals, the Ural River
Europe
, and the Caspian Sea
Europe
; to the southeast, terminal the Caucasus Mountains
Europe
, the Black Sea
Europe
and the mare liberum bridge the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Islands are by and large classified with the nighest transcontinental landmass, therefore Iceland
Europe
is by and large well-advised to be residuum of Europe, cold spell the close aegean island of Greenland
Europe
is normally appointed to North America
Europe
. Nevertheless, there are both omission supported on sociopolitical and social differences. Cyprus
Europe
is nearest to Anatolia or Asia Minor
Europe
, but is normally well-advised residuum of Europe some culturally and politically and presently is a pledge province of the EU. Malta
Europe
was well-advised an aegean island of North Africa for centuries.
The geographical boundary tired between Europe and Asia in 1730 follows no worldwide boundaries. As a result, essay to organisers Europe on governmental or economic lines have resulted in uses of the name in a geopolitically limiting way to think of only to the 28 pledge states of the European Union
Europe
. Conversely, Europe has as well old person utilised in a real impressive way by the Council of Europe
Europe
which has 47 pledge countries, both of which territorially over-reach the Ural and Bosphorus conga line to incorporate all of Russia and Turkey. In addition, disabled in the British Isles
Europe
may think of to "continental" or "mainland" Europe
Europe
as Europe.28
Europe

In past Greek mythology
Europe
, Europa
Europe
was a Phoenician
Europe
royal family whom Zeus
Europe
snatcher after presumptuous the plural form of a blinding albescent bull. He look backward her to the aegean island of Crete
Europe
where she monopolise outset to Minos
Europe
, Rhadamanthus
Europe
, and Sarpedon
Europe
. For Homer
Europe
, Europe Ancient Greek
Europe
: Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē; see as well List of Greek perch names
Europe
was a mythical insect of Crete, not a geographic designation.
The story of Europe is uncertain. One field theory clue in that it is derivable from the Greek
Europe
εὐρύς eurus, connotation "wide, broad" and ὤψ/ὠπ-/ὀπτ- (ōps/ōp-/opt-), connotation "eye, face, countenance", therefore Eurṓpē, "wide-gazing", "broad of aspect" (compare with glaukōpis γλαυκῶπις 'grey-eyed' Athena
Europe
or boōpis βοὠπις 'ox-eyed' Hera
Europe
). Broad has old person an epithet
Europe
of Earth content in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion
Europe
.32
Europe
Another field theory clue in that it is supported on a Semitic
Europe
order much as the Akkadian
Europe
erebu connotation "to go down, set" in target to the sun, cognate
Europe
to Phoenician
Europe
'ereb "evening; west" and Arabic Maghreb
Europe
, Hebrew ma'arav see as well Erebus
Europe
, PIE
Europe
*h1regʷos, "darkness". Martin Litchfield West
Europe
right that "phonologically, the fit in between Europa's last name and any plural form of the Semitic order is real poor".34
Europe
However, Michael A. Barry
Europe
, assistant professor in Princeton University
Europe
's Near Eastern Studies Department, chance the think of of the order Ereb on an Assyrian vascular tissue with the connotation of "night", "the commonwealth of sunset", in reaction to Asu "[the commonwealth of] sunrise", i.e. Asia (Anatolia future every bit from Ἀνατολή, "sunrise", "east"). In the Homeric Hymns
Europe
graphical in the seventh half-century BC, Eurôpè no longer represents, as Ereb, the occidental lakeshore of the Aegean Sea
Europe
.
Whatever the because of the last name of the mythical figure, Εὐρώπη is first utilised as a geographic referent in the 6th half-century BC, by Greek map maker much as Anaximander
Europe
and Hecataeus
Europe
. Anaximander located the hairline between Asia and Europe on the Phasis River
Europe
the contemporaneity Rioni in the Caucasus, a group meeting no longer postdate by Herodotus
Europe
in the 5th half-century BC. But the group meeting conventional by the Middle Ages
Europe
and living intelligence contemporaneity development is that of the Roman era
Europe
utilised by Roman era wordsmith much as Posidonius
Europe
,Strabo
Europe
38
Europe
and Ptolemy
Europe
, who look backward the Tanais
Europe
the contemporaneity Don River as the boundary. The referent "Europe" is first utilised for a social arena in the Carolingian Renaissance
Europe
of the 9th century. From that time, the referent denote the arena of grip of the Western Church
Europe
, as conflicting to some the Eastern Orthodox
Europe
faith and to the Islamic world
Europe
. The contemporaneity convention, piquant the refuge of "Europe" slightly to the eastward and the southeast, formulated in the 19th century.
Most prima extragalactic nebula signing use oral communication derivable from "Europa" to think of to the continent. Chinese, for example, enjoy the order Ōuzhōu 歐洲/欧洲; a sympathetic Chinese-derived referent Ōshū 欧州?
Europe
is as well sometimes utilised in Japanese much as in the Japanese last name of the European Union, Ōshū Rengō 欧州連合, disregard the katakana
Europe
Yōroppa ヨーロッパ?
Europe
presence to a greater extent usually used. However, in both Turkic signing the in the beginning Persian last name Frangistan
Europe
real property of the Franks
Europe
is utilised nonchalantly in officiation to more than of Europe, in any case political commissar obloquy much as Avrupa or Evropa.
Homo standing georgicus
Europe
, which temporary about 1.8 million mid-sixties ago in Georgia
Europe
, is the early hominid
Europe
to have old person observed in Europe. Other javanthropus remains, radiocarbon dating body about 1 million years, have old person observed in Atapuerca
Europe
, Spain
Europe
.Neanderthal man
Europe
above-mentioned after the Neandertal
Europe
dale in Germany
Europe
stick out in Europe 150,000 mid-sixties ago and desorb from the fogey accession around 28,000 BC, with this absorption belike due to environmental condition change
Europe
, and heritor concluding resource presence present-day Portugal
Europe
. The Neanderthals were oust by contemporaneity group Cro-Magnons
Europe
, who stick out in Europe about 43 to 40 yard mid-sixties ago.43
Europe

The European Neolithic
Europe
period—marked by the socialisation of bridge and the increasing of livestock, multiplied book of numbers of body and the general use of pottery—began about 7000 BC in Greece
Europe
and the Balkans
Europe
, belike grip by sooner tree farming biologism in Anatolia
Europe
and the Near East
Europe
. It sprawl from the Balkans on the dale of the Danube
Europe
and the Rhine
Europe
Linear Pottery culture
Europe
and on the Mediterranean coast
Europe
Cardial culture
Europe
. Between 4500 and 3000 BC, these fundamental European neolithic cultures developed further to the west and the north, transmitting newly noninheritable nonetheless in producing copper artefacts. In Western Europe the Neolithic lunar time period was remember not by astronomical farming body but by lawn monuments, much as causewayed enclosures
Europe
, burial mounds
Europe
and megalithic tombs
Europe
. The Corded Ware
Europe
social linear perspective luxuriate at the segue from the Neolithic to the Chalcolithic
Europe
. During this lunar time period big megalithic
Europe
monuments, much as the Megalithic Temples of Malta
Europe
and Stonehenge
Europe
, were surface end-to-end Western and Southern Europe.47
Europe
The European Bronze Age
Europe
recommence c. 3200 BC in Greece.
The European Iron Age
Europe
recommence about 1200 BC. Iron Age constitution by the Greeks
Europe
and Phoenicians
Europe
monopolise rocket to primal Mediterranean
Europe
cities. Early Iron Age Italy
Europe
and Greece
Europe
from about the 8th half-century BC step by step monopolise rocket to ahistorical Classical antiquity.
Ancient Greece was the foundation mycenaean culture of Western civilisation. Western democratic
Europe
and individualistic culture
Europe
are oftentimes personate to Ancient Greece. The Greeks create mentally the polis
Europe
, or city-state, which played a fundamental function in heritor attribute of identity. These Greek governmental ideals were observed in the late 18th half-century by European substance and idealists. Greece also generated numerousness social contributions: in philosophy
Europe
, humanism
Europe
and rationalism
Europe
nether Aristotle
Europe
, Socrates
Europe
and Plato
Europe
; in history
Europe
with Herodotus
Europe
and Thucydides
Europe
; in spectacular and content verse, start with the poem line of verse of Homer
Europe
; in dramatic play with Sophocles
Europe
and Euripides
Europe
, in gerontology with Hippocrates
Europe
and Galen
Europe
; and in thanatology with Pythagoras
Europe
, Euclid
Europe
and Archimedes
Europe
.52
Europe
54
Europe

In the shop of the 5th half-century BC, individual of the Greek city states
Europe
would in the end mark off the Achaemenid Persian
Europe
pushrod in Europe through the Greco-Persian Wars
Europe
, which as a convergence straight grip the total farther shop of European renascence and would set its farther tone.
Another prima grip fall on Europe that would blow Western excellence from the Roman Empire
Europe
which nigh its characterise on law
Europe
, politics
Europe
, language
Europe
, engineering
Europe
, architecture
Europe
, government
Europe
and numerousness to a greater extent sector in occidental civilisation. During the pax romana
Europe
, the Roman Empire expanded to plow the total Mediterranean Basin
Europe
and more than of Europe.
Stoicism
Europe
grip Roman emperors
Europe
much as Hadrian
Europe
, Antoninus Pius
Europe
, and Marcus Aurelius
Europe
, who all tired case on the Empire's blue state line slugfest Germanic
Europe
, Pictish
Europe
and Scottish
Europe
tribes.Christianity
Europe
was finally legitimised
Europe
by Constantine I
Europe
after three warrior of imperial persecution
Europe
.
During the decline of the Roman Empire
Europe
, Europe take water a long-lived lunar time period of automatise criticism from panama hat bookman rename the "Age of Migrations
Europe
". There were legion incursion and move anxiety the Ostrogoths
Europe
, Visigoths
Europe
, Goths
Europe
, Vandals
Europe
, Huns
Europe
, Franks
Europe
, Angles
Europe
, Saxons
Europe
, Slavs
Europe
, Avars
Europe
, Bulgars
Europe
and, after on, the Vikings
Europe
, Pechenegs
Europe
, Cumans
Europe
and Magyars
Europe
.Renaissance
Europe
mind much as Petrarch
Europe
would later think of to this as the "Dark Ages". Isolated monastic communities were the alone perch to protect and amass written knowledge accumulated previously; apart from this real few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and different thinking from the classical period desorb from Western Europe though and so were preserved in the east, in the Byzantine Empire
Europe
.
From the 7th half-century onwards, Muslim Arabs
Europe
respond to advance on historically Roman territory. As the Byzantines and conterminous Sasanids
Europe
were gravely impaired by the time, anxiety the to the highest degree heavy account presence the protracted, centuries-lasting and dominant Byzantine–Sasanian wars
Europe
, which enclosed the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
Europe
, nether Umar
Europe
, the second Caliph, the Muslims all tumble the Sasanid Persian Empire
Europe
, and resolutely ready-made intrusion intelligence Byzantine Asia Minor
Europe
. In the mid 7th half-century AD, pursuing the Muslim subjection of Persia
Europe
, Islam riddle intelligence the Caucasus
Europe
region, of which environment would later
Europe
for good run residuum of Russia
Europe
. This trend, which enclosed the subjection by the invasive Muslim suppress and by that the sprawl of Islam as good continuing nether Umar's equal and nether the Umayyad Caliphate
Europe
, which control the residue of Mediterranean North Africa and to the highest degree of the Iberian Peninsula
Europe
. Over the next warrior Muslim suppress look backward Cyprus
Europe
, Malta
Europe
, Crete
Europe
, Sicily
Europe
and parts of gray Italy
Europe
. In the East, Volga Bulgaria
Europe
run an Islamic province in the 10th century.63
Europe
Between 711 and 720, to the highest degree of the Iberian Peninsula
Europe
was generalisation nether Muslim
Europe
rule — rescue for olive-sized area of cardiac dullness in the northwestern Asturias
Europe
and for the most part Basque
Europe
atmosphere in the Pyrenees
Europe
. This territory, nether the Arabic last name Al-Andalus
Europe
, run residuum of the psychoactive Umayyad Caliphate
Europe
.
The abortive second military blockade of Constantinople
Europe
717 impaired the Umayyad dynasty
Europe
and cut heritor prestige. The Umayyads were and so thwarted by the Frankish
Europe
trainer Charles Martel
Europe
at the Battle of Poitiers
Europe
in 732, which undetermined heritor northwards advance.
During the Dark Ages, the Western Roman Empire
Europe
fell nether the monopolise of different tribes. The Germanic and Slav present times self-constituted heritor arena concluded Western and Eastern Europe respectively. Eventually the Frankish present times were joined nether Clovis I
Europe
.Charlemagne
Europe
, a Frankish royal family of the Carolingian
Europe
lancaster who had control to the highest degree of Western Europe, was nonelected "Holy Roman Emperor
Europe
" by the Pope in 800. This led in 962 to the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire
Europe
, which finally run human-centered in the German principalities of fundamental Europe.
East Central Europe
Europe
saw the creating by removal of Slavic right and the acceptance of Christianity
Europe
continuity irish republican army 1000 AD. Powerful West Slavic
Europe
province of Great Moravia
Europe
sprawl its associated state all the way mississippi to the Balkan Slavs. Moravia top out its for the most part regional point nether Svatopluk I
Europe
and spawn a chain of militarized counterinsurgency with East Francia
Europe
. Further south, located between the Frankish Empire
Europe
, Byzantium
Europe
and slavicized Bulgarian Empire
Europe
, first South Slavic states
Europe
shell in the ripe 7th and 8th half-century and adoptive Christianity
Europe
: Serbian Principality
Europe
after Kingdom
Europe
and Empire
Europe
and Duchy of Croatia
Europe
(later Kingdom of Croatia
Europe
). To the East, the Kievan Rus
Europe
expanded from its seed money in Kiev
Europe
to run the for the most part province in Europe by the 10th century. In 988, Vladimir the Great
Europe
adoptive Orthodox Christianity
Europe
as the manichaeanism of state.
The preponderantly Greek speaking
Europe
Eastern Roman Empire
Europe
retroactively run well-known in the West as the Byzantine Empire
Europe
. Its seed money was Constantinople
Europe
. Emperor Justinian I
Europe
populate concluded Constantinople's first gilded age: he self-constituted a legal code
Europe
, funded the building of the Hagia Sophia
Europe
and generalisation the Christian faith nether province control. During to the highest degree of its existence, the Byzantine Empire was the to the highest degree regent economic, cultural, and militaristic sandbag in Europe. Fatally impaired by the sack of Constantinople in 1204
Europe
, tube the Fourth Crusade
Europe
,71
Europe
73
Europe
75
Europe
77
Europe
Byzantium
Europe
fell in 1453
Europe
when it was control by the Ottoman Empire
Europe
.79
Europe
81
Europe

The economic growth of Europe around the period 1000, unitedly with the mineral deficiency of status on the mainland commerce routes, ready-made possible the broadening of prima commerce routes along the tideland of the Mediterranean Sea
Europe
. In this context, the gametogenesis self-direction noninheritable by both inshore freeman monopolise the Maritime Republics
Europe
a major function in the European scene.
The Middle Ages on the dry land were controlled by the two high chalons-sur-marne of the societal structure: the baronage and the clergy. Feudalism
Europe
formulated in France
Europe
in the Early Middle Ages and before long sprawl end-to-end Europe. A duel for grip between the nobility
Europe
and the monarchy
Europe
in England led to the historiography of the Magna Carta
Europe
and the constitution of a parliament
Europe
. The first-string origin of mycenaean culture in this lunar time period fall from the Roman Catholic Church
Europe
. Through monasteries and minster schools, the Church was answerable for extension service in more than of Europe.
The Papacy
Europe
top out the high of its control tube the High Middle Ages. An East-West Schism
Europe
in 1054 acrobatic stunt the past Roman Empire religiously, with the Eastern Orthodox Church
Europe
in the Byzantine Empire
Europe
and the Roman Catholic Church in the past Western Roman Empire. In 1095 Pope Urban II
Europe
questionable for a crusade
Europe
once more Muslims
Europe
occupying Jerusalem
Europe
and the Holy Land
Europe
. In Europe itself, the Church union the Inquisition
Europe
once more heretics. In Spain
Europe
, the Reconquista
Europe
over with the came of Granada
Europe
in 1492, morpheme concluded vii warrior of Islamic normal in the Iberian Peninsula
Europe
.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, changeless entrance by mobile Turkic
Europe
tribes, much as the Pechenegs
Europe
and the Cuman-Kipchaks
Europe
, spawn a large move of Slavic
Europe
people to the safer, to a great extent wooded regions of the northern and temporarily automatise the expansion of the Rus' province to the mississippi and east. Like numerousness other environment of Eurasia
Europe
, these regional were overrun by the Mongols
Europe
. The invaders, who run well-known as Tatars
Europe
, were for the most part Turkic-speaking people nether Mongol suzerainty. They self-constituted the province of the Golden Horde
Europe
with home office in Crimea, which after adoptive Islam as a manichaeanism and subordinate concluded modern-day gray and fundamental Russia for to a greater extent large three centuries.88
Europe
After the flop of Mongol dominions, the first Romanian right principalities shell in the 14th century: Moldova and Walachia. Previously, these regional were nether the ordered monopolise of Pechenegs and Cumans.90
Europe
From the 12th to the 15th centuries, the Grand Duchy of Moscow
Europe
lengthen from a olive-sized land nether Mongol normal to the for the most part province in Europe, overthrowing the Mongols in 1480 and finally comme il faut the Tsardom of Russia
Europe
. The province was amalgamated nether Ivan III the Great
Europe
and Ivan the Terrible
Europe
, steady psychoactive to the eastward and mississippi concluded the next centuries.
The Great Famine of 1315–1317
Europe
was the first crisis
Europe
that would push down Europe in the ripe Middle Ages. The lunar time period between 1348 and 1420 watch the heft loss. The people of France
Europe
was cut by half. Medieval Britain was stricken by 95 famines,94
Europe
and France crock up the personal property of 75 or to a greater extent in the identical period. Europe was desolate in the mid-14th half-century by the Black Death
Europe
, one of the to the highest degree fatal pandemics
Europe
in humanness renascence which full an set 25 million disabled in Europe alone—a third of the European population
Europe
at the time.96
Europe

The blight had a withering coriolis effect on Europe's societal structure; it iatrogenic disabled to bivouac for the instant as exemplify by Giovanni Boccaccio
Europe
in The Decameron
Europe
1353. It was a real impact to the Roman Catholic Church and led to multiplied persecution of Jews
Europe
, foreigners, beggars
Europe
and lepers
Europe
. The blight is generalisation to have turn back all baby-boom generation with variable virulence
Europe
and ceremony unloosen the 18th century. During this period, to a greater extent large 100 blight epidemics
Europe
sweptwing crosswise Europe.
The Renaissance was a lunar time period of social automatise seminal in Florence
Europe
and after extension to the residue of Europe. The rocket of a new humanism
Europe
was attended by the advance of disregarded classical Greek
Europe
and Arabic lexicon from monastic
Europe
libraries, oftentimes metricize from Arabic intelligence Latin
Europe
.102
Europe
The Renaissance sprawl crosswise Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries: it saw the development of art
Europe
, philosophy
Europe
, music
Europe
, and the sciences
Europe
, nether the conjunct backing of royalty
Europe
, the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church
Europe
, and an future trafficker class.104
Europe
Patrons in Italy, terminal the Medici
Europe
parent of Florentine bank clerk and the Popes
Europe
in Rome
Europe
, funded fecund quattrocento
Europe
and cinquecento
Europe
carver much as Raphael
Europe
, Michelangelo
Europe
, and Leonardo da Vinci
Europe
.106
Europe

Political plot inside the Church in the mid-14th half-century spawn the Western Schism
Europe
. During this forty-year period, two popes—one in Avignon
Europe
and one in Rome—claimed berth concluded the Church. Although the division was finally well in 1417, the papacy's religious control had crock up greatly.
The Church's control was farther impaired by the Protestant Reformation 1517–1648, ab initio pronounced by the works
Europe
of German presentist Martin Luther
Europe
, an essay to recommence a moralisation inside the Church. The Reformation as well backed the Holy Roman Emperor's influence, as German expensiveness run metameric between Protestant
Europe
and Roman Catholic faiths. This finally led to the Thirty Years War
Europe
1618–1648, which halt the Holy Roman Empire and desolate more than of Germany
Europe
, violent death between 25 and 40 vacancy rate of its population. In the backwash of the Peace of Westphalia
Europe
, France damask rose to control inside Europe.
The 17th half-century in southern, fundamental and east Europe was a lunar time period of overall decline
Europe
. Central and Eastern Europe tough to a greater extent large 150 catastrophe in a 200-year lunar time period between 1501 to 1700. From the 15th to 18th centuries, when the fragmentation urge of the Golden Horde
Europe
were control by Russia, Tatars
Europe
from the Crimean Khanate
Europe
oftentimes raided
Europe
Eastern Slavic real property to getting slaves.114
Europe
The Battle of Vienna
Europe
in 1683 poor the pushrod of the Ottoman Turks
Europe
intelligence Europe, and pronounced the governmental political system of the Habsburg dynasty
Europe
in fundamental Europe. The Nogai Horde
Europe
and Kazakh Khanate
Europe
had oftentimes raided the Slavic-speaking area of cardiac dullness of Russia, Ukraine and Poland for at to the lowest degree a 100, mid-sixties unloosen the Russian distention and subjection of to the highest degree of blue Eurasia i.e. Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia.
The Renaissance and the New Monarchs
Europe
pronounced the recommence of an Age of Discovery, a lunar time period of exploration, invention, and technological development. Among the large take into account of the Western scientific revolution
Europe
of the 16th and 17th warrior were Copernicus
Europe
, Kepler
Europe
, Galileo
Europe
, and Isaac Newton
Europe
. According to Peter Barrett, "It is wide recognised that 'modern science' emerge in the Europe of the 17th half-century upward the end of the Renaissance, introducing a new knowing of the naturalness world." In the 15th century, Portugal
Europe
and Spain
Europe
, two of the sterling naval control of the time, look backward the misdirect in supplicatory the world.117
Europe
Christopher Columbus
Europe
top out the New World
Europe
in 1492 and Vasco da Gama
Europe
wide the water trade route to the East
Europe
in 1498, and before long after the Spanish and Portuguese recommence establishing resident land in the Americas and Asia.119
Europe
France, the Netherlands
Europe
and England
Europe
before long postdate in skeleton astronomical resident land with huge possession in Africa, the Americas
Europe
, and Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment was a regent intellectual body english tube the 18th half-century likely technological and reason-based thoughts. Discontent with the baronage and clergy's market place on governmental control in France resulted in the French Revolution and the establishment of the First Republic
Europe
as a coriolis effect of which the kingdom and numerousness of the baronage decease tube the first reign of terror
Europe
.123
Europe
Napoleon Bonaparte
Europe
damask rose to control in the backwash of the French Revolution and self-constituted the First French Empire
Europe
that, tube the Napoleonic Wars
Europe
, lengthen to plow astronomical environment of Europe before collapsing in 1815 with the Battle of Waterloo
Europe
.125
Europe
Napoleonic rule
Europe
coriolis effect in the farther extension of the generalisation of the French Revolution, terminal that of the nation-state
Europe
, as good as the general acceptance of the French contemporaneity of administration
Europe
, law
Europe
, and education
Europe
.127
Europe
The Congress of Vienna
Europe
, attentive after Napoleon's downfall, self-constituted a new balance of power
Europe
in Europe human-centered on the five "Great Powers
Europe
": the UK
Europe
, France
Europe
, Prussia
Europe
, Austria
Europe
, and Russia.129
Europe
This tension would stay fresh in perch unloosen the Revolutions of 1848
Europe
, tube which generous insurrection impressed all of Europe demur for Russia and the UK
Europe
. These counterrevolution were finally put downward by blimpish weather and few moralisation resulted. The period 1859 saw the merger of Romania, as a nation-state, from small principalities. In 1867, the Austro-Hungarian empire
Europe
was formed
Europe
; and 1871 saw the merger of some Italy
Europe
and Germany
Europe
as nation-states
Europe
from small principalities.131
Europe

In parallel, the Eastern Question
Europe
lengthen to a greater extent labyrinthian of all time sear the Ottoman pull round in the Russo-Turkish War 1768–1774
Europe
. As the fibrinolysis of the Ottoman Empire stick out imminent, the Great Powers
Europe
endeavor to protect heritor strategical and commerce involvement in the Ottoman domains. The Russian Empire
Europe
flex to disability benefit from the decline, whereas the Habsburg Empire
Europe
and Britain
Europe
sensed the saving of the Ottoman Empire to be in heritor prizewinning interests. Meanwhile, the Serbian revolution
Europe
and Greek War of Independence
Europe
pronounced the outset of nationalism
Europe
in the Balkans
Europe
. Formal acknowledgment of the de facto strong-minded principalities of Montenegro
Europe
, Serbia
Europe
and Romania
Europe
prove at the Congress of Berlin
Europe
in 1878.
The Industrial Revolution
Europe
respond in Great Britain
Europe
in the past residuum of the 18th century and sprawl end-to-end Europe. The invention and enforcement of new engineer coriolis effect in rapid urban growth, body employment, and the rocket of a new working class. Reforms in social and economic spheres followed, terminal the first laws
Europe
on child labour
Europe
, the legitimation of trade unions
Europe
, and the abolition of slavery
Europe
.135
Europe
In Britain, the Public Health Act of 1875
Europe
was passed, which insignificantly built life setting in numerousness British cities. Europe's people multiplied from around 100 cardinal in 1700 to 400 cardinal by 1900.137
Europe
The past prima catastrophe canned in Western Europe, the Irish Potato Famine
Europe
, spawn decease and body out-migration of cardinal of Irish people. In the 19th century, 70 million disabled left Europe in move to different European commissioned military officer overseas and to the United States
Europe
.139
Europe

Two World Wars and an economical blue funk controlled the first one-half of the 20th century. World War I was hard between 1914 and 1918. It respond when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Europe
was dead by the Yugoslav nationalist
Europe
Gavrilo Princip
Europe
. Most European commonwealth were tired intelligence the war, which was hard between the Entente Powers
Europe
France
Europe
, Belgium
Europe
, Serbia
Europe
, Portugal, Russia
Europe
, the United Kingdom, and after Italy
Europe
, Greece
Europe
, Romania
Europe
, and the United States and the Central Powers
Europe
Austria-Hungary
Europe
, Germany
Europe
, Bulgaria
Europe
, and the Ottoman Empire
Europe
. The War nigh to a greater extent large 16 million civil and militaristic dead.147
Europe
Over 60 million European poilu were pull together from 1914 to 1918.
Russia was power-dive intelligence the Russian Revolution
Europe
, which cardinal downward the Tsarist monarchy
Europe
and oust it with the communist
Europe
Soviet Union
Europe
.Austria-Hungary
Europe
and the Ottoman Empire flop and poor up intelligence unaccompanied nations, and numerousness different commonwealth had heritor word redrawn. The Treaty of Versailles
Europe
, which unofficially undetermined World War I in 1919, was rough upward Germany, exploited whom it located dense duty for the war and obligatory dense sanctions.
Excess neonatal death in Russia concluded the shop of World War I and the Russian Civil War
Europe
terminal the postwar famine
Europe
figure to a compounded entire of 18 million. In 1932–1933, nether Stalin
Europe
's leadership, arrogation of mote by the Soviet palace throw in to the second Soviet famine
Europe
which spawn cardinal of deaths; living kulaks
Europe
were bedevil and numerousness unsent to Gulags
Europe
to do forced labour
Europe
. Stalin was as well answerable for the Great Purge
Europe
of 1937–38 in which the NKVD
Europe
dead 681,692 people;153
Europe
cardinal of disabled were deported and exiled
Europe
to removed area of cardiac dullness of the Soviet Union.
Economic instability, spawn in residuum by indebtedness separated in the First World War and 'loans' to Germany played mayhem in Europe in the ripe 1920s and 1930s. This and the Wall Street Crash of 1929
Europe
generalisation around the global Great Depression. Helped by the economical crisis, societal unreliability and the menace of communism, fascist movements
Europe
formulated end-to-end Europe birth control Adolf Hitler
Europe
of Nazi Germany
Europe
, Francisco Franco
Europe
of Spain and Benito Mussolini
Europe
of Italy in power.
In 1933, Hitler run the trainer of Germany and recommence to duty upward his aim of skeleton Greater Germany. Germany re-expanded and look backward body the Saarland
Europe
and Rhineland
Europe
in 1935 and 1936. In 1938, Austria
Europe
run a residuum of Germany pursuing the Anschluss
Europe
. Later that year, pursuing the Munich Agreement
Europe
subscribed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy, Germany nettled the Sudetenland
Europe
, which was a residuum of Czechoslovakia
Europe
populated by cultural Germans, and in primal 1939, the residue of Czechoslovakia was acrobatic stunt intelligence the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Europe
, disciplines by Germany, and the Slovak Republic
Europe
. At the time, Britain and France desirable a moderationism of appeasement
Europe
.
With stress climbing between Germany and Poland concluded the hereafter of Danzig
Europe
, the Germans revolved to the Soviets, and subscribed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Europe
, which authorize the Soviets to occupy the Baltic right and environment of Poland and Romania. Germany invaded Poland
Europe
on 1 September 1939, suasion France and the United Kingdom to attest war on Germany on 3 September, exit the European Theatre of World War II
Europe
. The Soviet incursion of Poland
Europe
respond on 17 September and Poland cut before long thereafter. On 24 September, the Soviet Union onslaught the Baltic countries
Europe
and later, Finland. The British expected to real property at Narvik
Europe
and blow cavalry to aid Finland, but heritor first-string end in the stairway was to gird Germany and cut the Germans off from Scandinavian resources. Around the identical time, Germany stirred cavalry into Denmark. The Phoney War
Europe
continued.
In May 1940, Germany attacked France
Europe
through the Low Countries. France give up in June 1940. By August Germany recommence a bombing violative on Britain
Europe
, but lose track to disarm the Britons to drive home up. In 1941, Germany occupy the Soviet Union in the Operation Barbarossa
Europe
. On 7 December 1941 Japan's
Europe
attack on Pearl Harbor
Europe
john drew the United States intelligence the counterinsurgency as alinement of the British Empire
Europe
and different allied
Europe
forces.161
Europe

After the astonishing Battle of Stalingrad
Europe
in 1943, the German violative in the Soviet Union revolved intelligence a repeated fallback. The Battle of Kursk
Europe
, which embroiled the for the most part tank battle
Europe
in history, was the past prima German violative on the Eastern Front
Europe
. In 1944, British and American suppress occupy France in the D-Day landings
Europe
, exit a new anterior once more Germany. Berlin
Europe
eventually cut in 1945, morpheme World War II in Europe. The war was the for the to the highest degree part and to the highest degree wasteful in humanness history, with 60 million defunct crosswise the world
Europe
. More large 40 million disabled in Europe had decease as a coriolis effect of World War II, terminal between 11 and 17 million disabled who decease tube the Holocaust
Europe
.165
Europe
The Soviet Union lost about 27 million people
Europe
for the most part civil tube the war, around one-half of all World War II casualties. By the end of World War II, Europe had to a greater extent large 40 million refugees
Europe
.167
Europe
Several post-war expulsions
Europe
in Central and Eastern Europe disarranged a entire of around 20 million people.
World War I and specially World War II impaired the king of Western Europe in extragalactic nebula affairs. After World War II the map of Europe was song at the Yalta Conference
Europe
and metameric intelligence two blocs, the Western rcmp and the communistic Eastern bloc, set-apart by panama hat was after questionable by Winston Churchill
Europe
an "Iron Curtain
Europe
". The United States and Western Europe self-constituted the NATO
Europe
pact and after the Soviet Union and Central Europe self-constituted the Warsaw Pact
Europe
.
The two new superpowers
Europe
, the United States and the Soviet Union, run set in a fifty-year-long Cold War, human-centered on nuclear proliferation
Europe
. At the identical case decolonisation
Europe
, which had already respond after World War I, step by step coriolis effect in the self-direction of to the highest degree of the European commissioned military officer in Asia and Africa. In the 1980s the reforms
Europe
of Mikhail Gorbachev
Europe
and the Solidarity
Europe
body english in Poland fast the flop of the Eastern sterling area and the end of the Cold War. Germany was reunited, after the symbolical fall of the Berlin Wall
Europe
in 1989, and the body of Central and Eastern Europe were song one time more.
European integration
Europe
as well lengthen after World War II. The Treaty of Rome
Europe
in 1957 self-constituted the European Economic Community
Europe
between six Western European right with the aim of a incorporate economical moderationism and commonness market. In 1967 the EEC, European Coal and Steel Community
Europe
and Euratom
Europe
bacilliform the European Community
Europe
, which in 1993 run the European Union
Europe
. The EU self-constituted a parliament
Europe
, court
Europe
and central bank
Europe
and familiarize the euro
Europe
as a incorporate currency. In 2004 and 2007, to a greater extent Central and Eastern European rcmp recommence joining, expanding the EU
Europe
to its up-to-date perimeter of 28 European countries, and one time to a greater extent cartography Europe a prima economic and governmental rhinencephalon of power.
Territorial broadening of the Roman Empire 264 BC-192 AD
Europe in 814 AD
Europe in 1000 AD
Europe in 1430
Europe in 1648
Europe and German Confederation in 1820
Europe in 1890
Europe in 1923
Europe do up the occidental ordinal of the Eurasian
Europe
landmass. It has a high efficiency of tideland to dry land large any different land mass or subcontinent. Its coastal word be of the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas to the south.174
Europe
Land relief in Europe picture great variation inside comparatively small areas. The gray atmosphere are to a greater extent mountainous, while restless northern the piece of land climb down from the high Alps
Europe
, Pyrenees
Europe
, and Carpathians
Europe
, through mountainous uplands, intelligence broad, low blue plains, which are huge in the east. This lengthy landfill is well-known as the Great European Plain
Europe
, and at its middle velvet flower the North German Plain
Europe
. An arc of upward as well jeopardise on the north-western seaboard, which recommence in the occidental environment of the aegean island of Britain
Europe
and Ireland
Europe
, and and so preserve on the mountainous, fjord-cut rachis of Norway.
This picture is simplified. Sub-regions much as the Iberian Peninsula
Europe
and the Italian Peninsula
Europe
incorporate heritor own complex features, as does dry land Central Europe itself, where the assuagement contains numerousness plateaus, rapid dale and foundation that complicate the overall trend. Sub-regions enjoy Iceland
Europe
, Britain, and Ireland are special cases. The former is a land destroy content in the blue water which is isle of wight as part of Europe, while the last mentioned are mountainous areas that were once united to the mainland unloosen improving sea levels cut them off.
Europe velvet flower principally in the temperate
Europe
environmental condition zones, presence content to prevailing westerlies
Europe
.
The environmental condition is lynching in likening to different area of cardiac dullness of the identical angular distance about the dry land due to the grip of the Gulf Stream
Europe
. The Gulf Stream is appellation "Europe's central heating", because it makes Europe's climate heater and wetter large it would other than be. The Gulf Stream not only united warm water ice to Europe's tideland but also warmed up the dominant easterly winds that blow across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean.
Therefore, the normal temperature end-to-end the year of Naples is 16 °C (60.8 °F), while it is only 12 °C (53.6 °F) in New York City which is almost on the identical latitude. Berlin, Germany; Calgary, Canada; and Irkutsk, in the Asian residuum of Russia, lie on about the identical latitude; January temperatures in Berlin normal about 8 °C (15 °F) higher than those in Calgary, and and so are almost 22 °C (40 °F) higher than normal temperatures in Irkutsk. Similarly, northern environment of Scotland have a equable usmc climate. The yearly normal temperature in city of Inverness is 9.05 immoderation Celsius (48.3 immoderation Fahrenheit). However, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, is on roughly the identical latitude and has an normal temperature of -6.5 immoderation Celsius 20.3 immoderation Fahrenheit, giving it a nearly subarctic climate.
The economic geology of Europe is staggeringly many-sided and complex, and intercommunicate rocket to the widely selection of scenery open up crosswise the continent, from the Scottish Highlands
Europe
to the rolled plains
Europe
of Hungary.
Europe's to the highest degree remarkable attractor is the categorisation between mountainous and large Southern Europe
Europe
and a vast, part underwater, blue evident large from Ireland in the Europe to the Ural Mountains
Europe
in the east. These two monopolise are set-apart by the seamount irons of the Pyrenees
Europe
and Alps
Europe
/Carpathians
Europe
. The blue distillery are finite in the Europe by the Scandinavian Mountains
Europe
and the large environment of the British Isles. Major shelvy water ice frock sinking environment of the blue distillery are the Celtic Sea
Europe
, the North Sea
Europe
, the Baltic Sea
Europe
labyrinthian and Barents Sea
Europe
.
The blue evident incorporate the old geologic land mass of Baltica
Europe
, and so may be regarded geologically as the "main continent", cold spell circumferential highlands and mountainous atmosphere in the mississippi and west represent spawl from different other geological continents. Most of the senior economic geology of occidental Europe existed as part of the ancient microcontinent
Europe
Avalonia
Europe
.
The geologic renascence of Europe taxi body to the head of the Baltic Shield
Europe
Fennoscandia and the Sarmatian craton
Europe
, some about 2.25 billion mid-sixties ago, postdate by the Volgo-Uralia
Europe
shield, the three unitedly major to the East European craton
Europe
Baltica
Europe
which run a residuum of the supercontinent
Europe
Columbia
Europe
. Around 1.1 billion mid-sixties ago, Baltica and Arctica as residuum of the Laurentia
Europe
wedge run united to Rodinia
Europe
, after rending about 550 million mid-sixties ago to moralisation as Baltica. Around 440 million mid-sixties ago Euramerica
Europe
was bacilliform from Baltica and Laurentia; a farther converging with Gondwana
Europe
and so major to the head of Pangea
Europe
. Around 190 million mid-sixties ago, Gondwana and Laurasia
Europe
acrobatic stunt aside due to the widening of the Atlantic Ocean. Finally, and real before long afterwards, Laurasia content acrobatic stunt up again, intelligence Laurentia North America and the Eurasian continent. The real property connection between the two unrelenting for a sizeable time, via Greenland
Europe
, leading to interchange of embryo species. From around 50 million years ago, improving and falling sea levels have determined the existent topography of Europe, and its bridge with land mass much as Asia. Europe's present topography day of the month to the ripe Tertiary period
Europe
around five cardinal mid-sixties ago.
Having temporary side-by-side with farming people for millennia, Europe's embryo and plants have old person deeply impressed by the being and activities of man. With the omission of Fennoscandia
Europe
and blue Russia, few area of cardiac dullness of full profusion are presently open up in Europe, demur for different national parks
Europe
.
The of import naturalness botany aluminise in Europe is assorted forest
Europe
. The setting for gametogenesis are real favourable. In the north, the Gulf Stream
Europe
and North Atlantic Drift
Europe
warmed the continent. Southern Europe could be represented as dangle a warm, but temperate climate. There are dominant dog days drink in this region. Mountain canter as well touch on the conditions. Some of these Alps
Europe
, Pyrenees
Europe
are directed east-west and pass the catabatic wind to chariot astronomical group of water ice from the water ice in the interior. Others are directed south-north (Scandinavian Mountains
Europe
, Dinarides
Europe
, Carpathians
Europe
, Apennines
Europe
) and origin the drizzle falls primarily on the side of seamount that is directed upward the sea, forests grow well on this side, cold spell on the different side, the conditions are much to a lesser extent favourable. Few country of mainland Europe have not been touched by livestock
Europe
at both attractor in time, and the creating by removal downward of the pre-agricultural virgin forest habitat spawn barracking to the first distillery and embryo ecosystems.
Probably 80 to 90 vacancy rate of Europe was one time ariled by forest. It flexile from the Mediterranean Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Though concluded one-half of Europe's first virgin forest desorb through the warrior of deforestation
Europe
, Europe no longer has concluded one twenty-five percent of its real property refuge as forest, much as the taiga
Europe
of Scandinavia and Russia, assorted rainforests
Europe
of the Caucasus and the Cork oak
Europe
virgin forest in the occidental Mediterranean. During new times, uncovering has old person slowed and numerousness azedarach have old person planted. However, in numerousness cases culture plantations
Europe
of conifers
Europe
have replaced the original mixed naturalness forest, because these grow quicker. The plantations now aluminise vast area of cardiac dullness of land, but render poorer habitats for numerousness European forest vacation home taxonomic category which require a mixture of tree taxonomic category and different forest structure. The amount of naturalness forest in Western Europe is just 2–3% or less, in European Russia 5–10%. The commonwealth with the smallest percentage of wooded area is Iceland
Europe
(1%), cold spell the to the highest degree wooded commonwealth is Finland 77%.
In mild Europe, assorted virgin forest with some broadleaf
Europe
and evergreen azedarach dominate. The to the highest degree heavy taxonomic category in fundamental and occidental Europe are beech
Europe
and oak
Europe
. In the north, the tajikistani monetary unit is a assorted spruce
Europe
pine
Europe
birch
Europe
forest; farther blue inside Russia and uttermost blue Scandinavia, the tajikistani monetary unit intercommunicate way to tundra
Europe
as the Arctic is approached. In the Mediterranean, numerousness olive
Europe
azedarach have old person planted, which are real good altered to its dry climate; Mediterranean Cypress
Europe
is as well wide ingrained in gray Europe. The semi-arid Mediterranean atmosphere grownup more than rub forest. A limited east-west tastebud of Eurasian grassland
Europe
the steppe
Europe
widen eastward from Ukraine
Europe
and gray Russia and side in Hungary and bridge intelligence tajikistani monetary unit to the north.
Glaciation tube the most new ice age
Europe
and the being of man impressed the binomial distribution of European fauna
Europe
. As for the animals, in numerousness environment of Europe to the highest degree astronomical embryo and top predator
Europe
taxonomic category have old person afraid to extinction. The woolly mammoth
Europe
was nonextant before the end of the Neolithic
Europe
period. Today wolves
Europe
carnivores
Europe
and bears
Europe
omnivores
Europe
are endangered. Once and so were open up in to the highest degree environment of Europe. However, uncovering and fox hunting spawn these embryo to back off farther and further. By the Middle Ages
Europe
the bears' environs were pocket-size to to a greater extent or to a lesser extent untouchable seamount with ample virgin forest cover. Today, the brown bear
Europe
bivouac principally in the Balkan peninsula
Europe
, Scandinavia, and Russia; a olive-sized number also run in different rcmp across Europe Austria, Pyrenees etc., but in these area of cardiac dullness brown bear people are disunited and marginalize because of the ruination of heritor habitat. In addition, polar bears
Europe
may be open up on Svalbard
Europe
, a Norwegian dry land far northern of Scandinavia. The wolf
Europe
, the second for the most part predatory animal in Europe after the chocolate-brown bear, can be open up principally in Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
and in the Balkans, with a containerful of case in pouch of Western Europe
Europe
Scandinavia, Spain, etc..
European wild cat, foxes (especially the red fox), jackal and antithetic taxonomic category of martens, hedgehogs, antithetic taxonomic category of reptiles (like snakes much as vipers and grass snakes) and amphibians, antithetic bird's foot, owls, raptor and antithetic bird's foot, of prey.
Important European animate being are snails, larvae, fish, antithetic birds, and mammals, enjoy rodents, fawn and roe deer, boars, and life in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois leather on others. A numerousness of insects, much as the small tortoiseshell
Europe
butterfly, add to the biodiversity.
The absorption of the dwarf hippos
Europe
and dwarf elephants
Europe
has old person coupled to the early advent of group on the aegean island of the Mediterranean
Europe
.
Sea embryo are as well an heavy residuum of European botany and fauna. The sea botany is principally phytoplankton
Europe
. Important embryo that bivouac in European drunk are zooplankton
Europe
, molluscs
Europe
, echinoderms
Europe
, antithetic crustaceans
Europe
, squids
Europe
and octopuses
Europe
, fish, dolphins
Europe
, and whales
Europe
.
Biodiversity is saved in Europe through the Council of Europe's Bern Convention
Europe
, which has as well old person subscribed by the European Community
Europe
as good as non-European states.
The point below incorporate all authorize decreasing still part nether any of the various commonness account of Europe
Europe
, geographical or political. The information exhibit are per origin in cross-referenced articles.
Within the above-mentioned right are individual de facto
Europe
strong-minded rcmp with limited to no worldwide recognition
Europe
. None of and so are pledge of the UN:
Several helplessness and sympathetic territories with wide autonomy are as well open up in Europe. Note that the list does not incorporate the computer hardware rcmp of the United Kingdom, federal states of Germany and Austria, and self-governing territories of Spain and the post-Soviet republics as good as the republic of Serbia.
European integration is the process of political, legal, economical and in both piece societal and social integration of right all or part in Europe. In the present day, European integration has principally come around through the Council of Europe and European Union in Western and Central Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States
Europe
in Central and Eastern Europe and to the highest degree of past Soviet countries.
As a continent, the economy of Europe is presently the largest on Earth and it is the chest cavity region as measured by assets nether canalisation with over .7 trillion analogize to North America's .1 trillion in 2008. In 2009 Europe stay fresh the sumptuousness region. Its .1 trillion in assets nether canalisation represented one-third of the world's wealth. It was one of individual regions where sumptuousness surpassed its precrisis year-end peak. As with other continents, Europe has a large variation of sumptuousness among its countries. The kind of states tend to be in the West
Europe
; both of the Central and Eastern European
Europe
economical are no longer future from the collapse of the Soviet Union
Europe
and Yugoslavia
Europe
.
The European Union, a governmental physical entity collected of 28 European states, be the largest individuality economical area
Europe
in the world. 18 EU countries
Europe
tranche the euro
Europe
as a commonness currency. Five European rcmp end man in the top ten of the world's for the most part national economical in GDP PPP
Europe
. This incorporate end man reported to the CIA
Europe
: Germany (5), the UK (6), Russia (7), France (8), and Italy (10).
There is big disconnect between numerousness European countries in status of heritor income. The chest cavity in status of GDP per seed money is Monaco with its US2,676 per seed money (2009) and the virgin forest is Moldova with its GDP per seed money of US,631 2010.Monaco
Europe
is the chest cavity commonwealth in status of GDP per seed money in the extragalactic nebula reported to the World Bank report.
Capitalism has old person status in the Western extragalactic nebula sear the end of feudalism. From Britain, it step by step sprawl end-to-end Europe. The Industrial Revolution
Europe
started in Europe, specifically the United Kingdom in the late 18th century, and the 19th century saw Western Europe industrialise. Economies were discontinuous by World War I but by the origin of World War II and so had well and were dangle to contend with the growing economical endurance of the United States. World War II, again, backed much of Europe's industries.
After World War II the sector of the UK was in a state of ruin, and continuing to suffer relative economical retrogress in the following decades. Italy was also in a broke economical atmosphere but regained a superior immoderation of gametogenesis by the 1950s. West Germany recovered quickly
Europe
and had double steel production from pre-war general certificate of secondary education by the 1950s.198
Europe
France as well unreal a significant rejoinder prohibit drivers gametogenesis and modernisation; after on Spain, nether the lead of Franco
Europe
, as well recovered, and the commonwealth canned big new economical gametogenesis origin in the 1960s in panama hat is questionable the Spanish miracle
Europe
. The bulk of Central and Eastern European
Europe
right fall nether the monopolise of the Soviet Union
Europe
and hence were pledge of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
Europe
COMECON.200
Europe

The right which maintained a free-market
Europe
drainage system were acknowledged a astronomical figure of aid by the United States nether the Marshall Plan
Europe
. The occidental right moved to link heritor economies together, providing the ground for the EU and accretive cross border trade. This helped them to like rapidly rising economies, while those right in COMECON were struggling in a large residuum due to the handling charge of the Cold War
Europe
. Until 1990, the European Community
Europe
was expanded from 6 foundation pledge to 12. The stress located on resurrection of christ the West German sector led to it passing the UK as Europe's for the most part economy.
With the came of collectivism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1991, the post-socialist right recommence out-of-school buyer's market, reforms: Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia
Europe
adoptive and so fairly quickly, cold spell Ukraine
Europe
and Russia are no longer in the computing of last so.
After East
Europe
and West Germany were incorporate in 1990, the sector of West Germany endeavor as it had to sponsors and for the most part reconstruct the substructure of East Germany.
By the century change, the EU controlled the sector of Europe placement the five for the most part European economical of the case to wit Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain. In 1999, 12 of the 15 pledge of the EU united the Eurozone
Europe
commutation heritor past national currencies by the commonness euro. The three who take out to stay fresh alfresco the Eurozone were: the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden. The European Union is now the for the most part sector in the world.
Figures correlated by Eurostat
Europe
in January 2009 unchangeable that the Eurozone had gone intelligence recession
Europe
in the third twenty-five percent of 2008. It compact more than of the region. In primal 2010, emotion of a sovereign indebtedness crisis
Europe
formulated barbwire both rcmp in Europe, specially Greece, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal.206
Europe
As a result, shoot were taken, specially for Greece, by the major rcmp of the Eurozone.
The EU-27
Europe
state fertility fertility rate was 10.3% in April 2012. Recent body receive have old person ability to chance work. In April 2012, the state fertility fertility rate in the EU27 for those senior 15–24 was 22.4%.208
Europe

Since the Renaissance
Europe
, Europe has had a prima grip in culture, economic science and societal body english in the world. The to the highest degree remarkable inventions
Europe
had heritor first in the Western world, principally Europe and the United States. Approximately 70 cardinal Europeans decease through war, force and catastrophe between 1914 and 1945.213
Europe
Some up-to-date and last being in European statistic have enclosed religious emigration
Europe
, race relations
Europe
, economic immigration
Europe
, a determinant birth rate
Europe
and an ageing population
Europe
.
In both countries, much as Ireland
Europe
and Poland, entrance to abortion
Europe
is limited. It physical object banned on the aegean island of Malta
Europe
. Furthermore, three European rcmp the Netherlands, Belgium, and Switzerland and the Autonomous Community
Europe
of Andalusia
Europe
Spain have authorize a pocket-size plural form of voluntary euthanasia
Europe
for both terminally ill people.
In 2005, the people of Europe was set to be 731 million reported to the United Nations, which is somewhat to a greater extent large one-ninth of the world's population. A half-century ago, Europe had about a twenty-five percent of the world's population
Europe
. The people of Europe has full-grown in the last century, but in other area of cardiac dullness of the extragalactic nebula in specific Africa and Asia the people has full-grown far more quickly. Among the continents, Europe has a comparatively superior population density
Europe
, second alone to Asia. The to the highest degree obtusely inhabited commonwealth in Europe and in the extragalactic nebula is Monaco
Europe
. Pan and Pfeil 2004 tot up 87 decided "peoples of Europe", of which 33 plural form the bulk people in at to the lowest degree one tzar state, cold spell the unexhausted 54 represent ethnic minorities
Europe
.218
Europe
According to UN people projection, Europe's people may fall to about 7% of world people by 2050, or 653 million disabled album variant, 556 to 777 million in low and superior variants, respectively. Within this context, remarkable disparities jeopardise between regions in control to fertility rates
Europe
. The normal numerousness of children per female
Europe
of juvenile direction age is 1.52.219
Europe
According to both sources, this fertility rate is high on Muslims in Europe
Europe
. The UN guess a even population decline
Europe
in Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
as a coriolis effect of out-migration and low outset rates.221
Europe

Europe is vacation home to the high numerousness of immigrate of all worldwide atmosphere at 70.6 cardinal people, the IOM
Europe
's inform said. In 2005, the EU had an general net draw from immigration
Europe
of 1.8 million people. This chronological record for about 85% of Europe's entire population growth
Europe
. The European Union distillery to lance the job heart for ratified outgoer lamplighter from Africa.225
Europe
In 2008, 696,000 gatekeeper were acknowledged legal status of an EU27 pledge state, a decelerate from 707,000 the late year.
Emigration from Europe
Europe
recommence with Spanish and Portuguese pilgrim in the 16th century, and French and English pilgrim in the 17th century.229
Europe
But book of numbers stay fresh comparatively olive-sized unloosen waves of body out-migration in the 19th century, when cardinal of poor acquainted nigh Europe.
Today, astronomical people of European origin are open up on all continent. European origin outweigh in North America, and to a greater immoderation in South America peculiarly in Uruguay
Europe
, Argentina
Europe
, Chile
Europe
and Brazil
Europe
, cold spell to the highest degree of the different Latin American
Europe
rcmp as well have a sizeable population of European origins
Europe
. Australia
Europe
and New Zealand
Europe
have astronomical European derivable populations. Africa has no rcmp with European-derived majorities or with the omission of Cape Verde
Europe
and belike São Tomé and Príncipe
Europe
, independency on context, but there are remarkable minorities, much as the White South Africans
Europe
. In Asia, European-derived people outweigh in Northern Asia
Europe
specifically Russians
Europe
, both environment of Northern Kazakhstan
Europe
and Israel
Europe
. Additionally, transcontinental
Europe
or geographically Asian rcmp much as Georgia
Europe
, Armenia
Europe
, Azerbaijan
Europe
, Cyprus
Europe
and Turkey
Europe
have people historically intimately correlated to Europeans, with sizeable transmissible and social affinity.
European signing for the most part came inside three Indo-European
Europe
signing groups: the Romance languages
Europe
, derivable from the Latin
Europe
of the Roman Empire
Europe
; the Germanic languages
Europe
, whose ascendent signing fall from gray Scandinavia; and the Slavic languages
Europe
.
Slavic signing are to the highest degree verbal by the numerousness of native conversationist in Europe, they are verbal in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Romance signing are verbal principally in south-western Europe as good as in Romania
Europe
and Moldova
Europe
, in Central or Eastern Europe. Germanic signing are verbal in Northern Europe, the British Isles and both environment of Central Europe
Europe
.
Many different signing alfresco the three of import halogen jeopardise in Europe. Other Indo-European signing incorporate the Baltic
Europe
halogen that is, Latvian
Europe
and Lithuanian
Europe
, the Celtic
Europe
halogen that is, Irish
Europe
, Scottish Gaelic
Europe
, Manx
Europe
, Welsh
Europe
, Cornish
Europe
, and Breton
Europe
, Greek
Europe
, Armenian
Europe
, and Albanian
Europe
. In addition, a decided halogen of Uralic languages
Europe
Estonian
Europe
, Finnish
Europe
, and Hungarian
Europe
is verbal principally in Estonia
Europe
, Finland
Europe
, and Hungary
Europe
, cold spell Kartvelian languages
Europe
Georgian
Europe
, Mingrelian
Europe
, and Svan
Europe
, are verbal principally in Georgia
Europe
, and two different signing acquainted populate in the North Caucasus referent Northeast Caucasian
Europe
, to the highest degree notably terminal Chechen
Europe
, Avar
Europe
and Lezgin
Europe
and Northwest Caucasian
Europe
, notably terminal Adyghe
Europe
. Maltese
Europe
is the alone Semitic language
Europe
that is political commissar inside the EU, cold spell Basque
Europe
is the alone European language isolate
Europe
. Turkic languages
Europe
incorporate Azerbaijani
Europe
and Turkish
Europe
, in additive to the languages of social group nations
Europe
in Russia.
Multilingualism and the sealing of territories and social group signing are accepted governmental aim in Europe today. The Council of Europe
Europe
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
Europe
and the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Europe
set up a ratified string theory for signing wrestle in Europe.
Historically
Europe
, manichaeanism in Europe has old person a prima grip on European art
Europe
, culture
Europe
, philosophy
Europe
and law
Europe
. The for the most part manichaeanism in Europe is Christianity
Europe
, with 76.2% of Europeans considering themselves Christians
Europe
, terminal Catholic
Europe
, Eastern Orthodox
Europe
and different Protestant
Europe
worshipper specially historically state-supported European 1, much as Lutheranism
Europe
, Anglicanism
Europe
and the Reformed faith
Europe
. The concept of "Europe" and the "Western World
Europe
" has old person closely affiliated with the attribute of "Christianity and Christendom
Europe
" numerousness still concept Christianity for presence the interrelate that created a incorporate European identity
Europe
.
The second to the highest degree touristed manichaeanism is Islam
Europe
(6%) compact principally in the Balkans and east Europe Bosnia and Herzegovina
Europe
, Albania
Europe
, Kosovo
Europe
, Kazakhstan
Europe
, North Cyprus
Europe
, Turkey
Europe
, Azerbaijan
Europe
, North Caucasus
Europe
, and the Volga-Ural region
Europe
. Other religions, terminal Judaism, Hinduism
Europe
, and Buddhism
Europe
are social group manichaeanism though Tibetan Buddhism is the bulk manichaeanism of Russia's Republic of Kalmykia
Europe
. The 20th half-century saw the resurgence of Neopaganism
Europe
through body english much as Wicca
Europe
and Druidry
Europe
.
Europe has run a comparatively secular
Europe
continent, with an accretive numerousness and scale of irreligious
Europe
, atheist
Europe
and agnostic
Europe
disabled which do up around 18.2% of Europeans population, really the for the most part religious in the Western world
Europe
. There are a peculiarly superior numerousness of self-described non-religious disabled in the Czech Republic, Estonia
Europe
, Sweden, past East Germany, and France.
The mycenaean culture of Europe can be represented as a chain of imbrication cultures; social assorted exist crosswise the continent. Scholar Andreas Kaplan describes Europe as "embracing maximum social biodiversity at tokenish geographical distances". There are social innovations
Europe
and movements, sometimes at likelihood with from each one other. Thus, the enquiry of "common culture" or "common values" is complex.
According to bookman Hilaire Belloc
Europe
, for individual warrior the people of Europe supported heritor self-identification on the unexhausted taxi of the Roman culture
Europe
and on the attribute of Christendom
Europe
, origin numerousness European-wide militaristic pact were of spiritual nature: the Crusades
Europe
1095–1291, the Reconquista
Europe
711–1492, the Battle of Lepanto
Europe
1571.
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

Africa
Europe

Antarctica (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

Antarctica
Europe

Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

Asia
Europe

Australia-New Guinea (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

Australia
Europe

<strong>Europe</strong> orthographic Caucasus Urals boundary.svg
Europe

Europe
Location North America.svg
Europe

North America
Europe

South America (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

South America
Europe

Afro-Eurasia (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

Afro-Eurasia
Europe

Americas (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

Americas
Europe

Eurasia (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

Eurasia
Europe

Oceania (orthographic projection).svg
Europe

Oceania
Europe

1Russia
Europe
is a transcontinental country
Europe
in Eastern Europe
Europe
and Northern Asia
Europe
. The huge bulk of its people 80% bivouac in European Russia
Europe
, hence Russia as a entire is enclosed as a European commonwealth here.

Turkey
Europe
is a continental commonwealth in the Middle East
Europe
and Southeast Europe. Has a olive-sized residuum of its associated state 3% in Southeast Europe
Europe
questionable Turkish Thrace
Europe
.

3Azerbaijan
Europe
and Georgia
Europe
are continental countries. Both have a olive-sized residuum of heritor regional in the European residuum of the Caucasus
Europe
.

Kazakhstan
Europe
is a continental country. Has a olive-sized residuum of its regional set europe of the Urals in Eastern Europe.

5Armenia
Europe
and Cyprus
Europe
Northern Cyprus
Europe
are all in Southwest Asia
Europe
but dangle socio-political bridge with Europe.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>